Saccharomyces boulardii is a tropical strain of yeast first isolated from lychee and mangosteen fruit in 1923 by French scientist Henri Boulard. Saccharomyces boulardii is a viable yeast that is genetically different from Baker’s yeast and other yeasts, and does not contain milk products. S. boulardii is a true ?biotic? or living organism which has been shown to have beneficial affects by improving intestinal microbalance when administered in adequate amounts. S. boulardii is not part of the naturally occurring gut flora, and is not significantly impacted by antibiotics. In fact, S. boulardii has been shown to be supportive of antibiotic therapy. Oral administration achieves steady state concentrationsin the colon within three days, but does not colonize in the intestinal tract. The organism is typically cleared from the intestinal tract within 2 to 5 days after discontinuation.
MECHANISMS OF ACTION
S. boulardii secretes a 54 kDa protease, in vivo. This protease has been shown to both degrade toxins A and B, secreted from Clostridium difficile, and inhibit their binding to receptors along the brush border. This leads to a reduction in the enterotoxinic and cytotoxic effects of C. difficile infection.
Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, two pathogenic bacteria often associated with acute infectious diarrhea, were shown to strongly adhere to mannose on the surface of S. boulardii via lectin receptors (adhesins). Once the invading microbe is bound to S. boulardii, it is prevented from attaching to the brush border; it is then eliminated from the body during the next bowel movement.
Trophic effects on enterocytes
The hypersecretion of water and electrolytes (including chloride ions), caused by cholera toxin during a Vibrio cholerae infection, can be reduced significantly with the introduction of S. boulardii. A 120 kDa protease secreted by S. boulardii has been observed to have an effect on enterocytes lining the large and small intestinal tract?inhibiting the stimulation of adenylate cyclase, which led to the reduction in enterocytic cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) production and chloride secretion.
Interleukin 8 (IL-8) is a proinflammatory cytokine secreted during an E. coli infection in the gut. S. boulardii has been shown to decrease the secretion of IL-8 during an E. coli infection; S. boulardii could have a protective effect in inflammatory bowel disease. Saccharomyces boulardii may exhibit part of its anti-inflammatory potential through modulation of dendritic cell phenotype, function and migration by inhibition of their immune response to bacterial microbial surrogate antigens such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Moreover, secretion key pro-inflammatory cytokines like Tissue Necrosis Factor alpha (TNF-α) and IL-6 were notably reduced, while the secretion of anti-inflammatory IL-10 did increase. Finally Saccharomyces boulardii supernatant inhibited the proliferation of nave T-cells in a mixed lymphocyte reaction.
Increased levels of disaccharidases
This can help in the treatment of diarrhea, as the level of enzymatic activity has diminished and carbohydrate cannot be degraded and absorbed
Increased immune response
S. boulardii induces the secretion of Immunoglobulin A (IgA) in the small intestine of the rat.
Two studies each showed a significant reduction in the symptoms of acute gastroenteritis in children, versus placebo, by measuring frequency of bowel movements and other criteria. Children over three months are recommended to take two doses of 250 mg a day for five days to treat acute diarrhea. Children under three months are recommended to take half a 250 mg capsule or sachet twice daily for five days.
A prospective placebo-controlled study found a significant reduction in symptoms of diarrhea in adults as well taking 250 mg of S. boulardii twice a day for five days or until symptoms are relieved.
Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection
Administration of two 500 mg doses per day of S. boulardii when given with one of two antibiotics (vancomycin or metronidazole) was found to significantly reduce the rate of recurrent Clostridium difficile (pseudomembranous colitis) infection. No significant benefit was found for prevention of an initial episode of Clostridium difficile-associated disease.
Irritable bowel syndrome
A prospective placebo-controlled study found patients with diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) had a significant reduction on the number and consistency of bowel movements.
Inflammatory bowel disease
Further benefits to inflammatory bowel disease patients have been suggested in the prevention of relapse in Crohn’s disease patients currently in remission and benefits to ulcerative colitis patients currently presenting with moderate symptoms. The recommended dosage is three 250 mg capsules a day.
Austrian vacationers taking S. boulardii traveling around the world were found to have significantly fewer occurrences of travelers’ diarrhea than those taking placebo. The more S. boulardii taken in prevention, starting five days before leaving, the higher the reduction in diarrhea reported. The reduction was also found to be dependent upon where the vacationer traveled. The recommended dosage is one 250 mg capsule or sachet per day
There is evidence for its use in the prophylactic (preventative) treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) in adults. There is further evidence for its use to prevent AAD in children.
S. boulardii has been shown to significantly increase the recovery rate of stage IV AIDS patients suffering from diarrhea versus placebo. On average, patients receiving S. boulardii gained weight while the placebo group lost weight over the 18 month trial. There were no reported adverse reaction observed in these immunocompromised patients.
OTHER ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS
S. boulardii have been found to interact with a variety of microbes within the gastrointestinal tract of the human body and shown inhibitory effects on inflammation causing agents. S. boulardii have been shown to reduce the concentration of diarrhea causing agents and their associated toxins. All types of diarrhea are effectively remedied by S. boulardii including acute diarrhea in adults, children, and infants, chronic diarrhea in AIDS patients, and diarrhea caused by bacterial infections.
S. boulardii has been utilized as a combatant to anti-biotic associated diarrhea, specifically with patients that suffer from Clostridium difficile. C. difficile infection is caused by anti-biotic treatments which eradicate the natural microflora in the lining of the gut causing inflammation to the colon and diarrhea. S. boulardii has been found to replenish a number of microflora in the digestive tract. C. difficile is an anaerobe which produces two toxins (A & B) responsible for nosocomial diarrhea in adults. Studies have found that S. boulardii decreases levels of C. difficile, however the most prominent effect is the reduction in concentration of C. difficile produced toxins, A and B. S. boulardii does so by releasing a 54-kDa protease that proteolytically digests toxin A and B and their brush border membrane receptors. In addition, S. boulardii inhibits C. difficile growth and has the ability to stimulate host mucosal activity to enhance the intestinal mucosal immune response.
S. boulardii is also effective at inhibiting the effects of Cholera, a condition caused by V. cholerae, a microbe which produces toxins that activate adenylate cyclase to stimulate cyclic AMP production, causing diarrhea.
S. boulardii is an effective treatment for patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). IBD is characterized by the common symptoms of abdominal pain, inflammation of the large intestine, disrupted intestinal transit, constipation or diarrhea, dyspepsia, and distension. Most of these symptoms are a result of an imbalance of microflora. S. boulardii treatment have been found to decrease all the symptoms of IBD.
S. boulardii decreases the quantity and severity of lesions developed by the amoeba E. histolylica.
S. boulardii has been found to be an effective instrument in preventing the relapse of patients with Crohn’s Disease who have already achieved remission. Also, S. boulardii have been found to be advantageous in reducing the gastrointestinal symptoms and diarrhea associated with Ulcerative Collitis.
S. boulardii has also been shown to fight giardiasis, a condition caused by the bacteria, Giardia lamblia which coats the interior of the small intestine, cutting off nutrient absorption.
S. boulardii exhibits excellent anti-microbial effects, specifically against the pathogenic bacteria known as E.coli and S. typhi which cause acute infectious diarrhea. The mode of action known as mannose-sensitive adhesion involves the binding of the pathogenic bacteria to specific sites on the surface of S. boulardii by way of lectin receptors. Because of this irreversible adhesion, pathogenic bacteria are kept from invading the brush border of the intestines, and conveniently excreted.
Bacterial enteropathogens such as the ones above are responsible for approximately 80% of all cases of Traveler’s Diarrhea (TD). Not only has S. boulardii proved to be an effective remedy for diarrhea, but studies have shown that consumption of S. boulardii as a preventative measure (taken 5-7 days prior to departure) decreases the risk of diarrhea.
S. boulardii has been found to effectively treat diarrhea associated with viral infections. As mentioned above, the most studied is chronic diarrhea associated with the HIV virus (AIDS). S. boulardii was given to patients with Stage IV AIDS with the establishment of a control group receiving placebos. Dramatic improvements were seen only 18 months later, including an increase in body weight (whereas the condition of patients given placebos continued to deteriorate significantly) and a decrease of gastrointestinal symptoms.
**Each capsule supplies:
Saccharomyces boulardii 235 mg
Each capsule of Saccharomyces boulardii contains a minimum of 4 billion organisms at the time of manufacture
RECOMMENDATION: One (1) capsule one (1) to three (3) times daily as a dietary supplement or as otherwise directed by a healthcare professional.
Contains: 60 Capsules
Product #: 7900