CHLORELLA

CHLORELLA is a single-celled alga. Throughout its two-billion-year history on this planet, it has survived because its tough outer shell protected its genetic integrity, and it is one of the most efficient foods on earth in using and concentrating sunshine, as shown by its high chlorophyll content and rapid reproduction. Chlorella is a natural, pure, whole food with all the materials to support life. Cracked cell wall Chlorella provides a tremendous source of concentrated nutrition.

Chlorella’s genetic integrity has remained constant for over two billion years, as fossil remains have demonstrated

This chlorella fossil dates to the pre-Cambrian period.

Chlorella pyrenoidosa, a freshwater single-celled green algae, is more popular in Japan as a regular supplement than vitamin C. An estimated 5 million Japanese use this medicinal algae every day. Chlorella’s broad spectrum health benefits, amply researched by Japanese scientists, include the impressive fact that it contains 60% protein, including all the essential amino acids, and high levels of beta carotene and chlorophyll.

Chlorella was the first form of life with a true nucleus. Blue-green algae and spirulina lack this nucleus. With plenty of sunlight and fertile growing conditions, chlorella reproduces itself by cell division at the rate of 4 new cells every 17-24 hours.

In or near the bodies of water on our planet, there are 25,000 species of algae which are elementary plants without roots, stems, branches and leaves. Algae usually contain chlorophyll and green algae are the simplest green living organisms.

Like other chlorophyll containing plants, algae convert inorganic chemical elements to organic matter by using light energy and photosynthesis. They form the first link in the series of organisms that makes up the Earth’s food chain.

Chlorella First Identified Around 1900

Chlorella has been on the earth since the Precambrian period: over 2.5 billion years. However, it was not until the 1890s that chlorella cells were identified by human eyes under a microscope. It was first grown in Holland in pure form in the late 1800s.

By the early 1900s, realizing that chlorella consists of 60% protein and multiplies very fast, scientists in various countries, especially in Germany, began to research the idea of making food from chlorella.

Although the research was interrupted by the two world wars in Europe, the enthusiasm for chlorella research carried on. In 1948, a pilot study at Stanford Research Institute in growing chlorella was successful. However the study had to be closed due to financial problems. In the 1950s, the Carnegie Institute took over the study and they concluded that chlorella could be grown on a commercial scale and would be a solution to help world hunger.

Initial Interest In Chlorella Was As Food Source

Postwar Japan faced a serious problem: a food shortage. In 1951, the Rockefeller Foundation and the Japanese government cosponsored Dr. Hiroshi Tamiya’s study at the Tokugawa Biological Institute. Dr. Tamiya was a pioneer in developing the technology to grow, harvest and process chlorella on a large commercially-feasible scale.

In 1957, a nonprofit organization called Japan Chlorella Research Center was founded and the world’s largest chlorella culturing pool was constructed. After that, another organization, Japan Chlorella Associations, was established with government’s financial aid.

The aim was to commercialize chlorella as a food. However, the plans were scrapped in 2 years because other foods such as rice or wheat had become more available and chlorella could not compete due to its higher cost. Another reason chlorella could not be commercialized as a food at that time was its low digestibility.

Researchers worldwide are excited about Chlorella

Chlorella pyrenoidosa, a freshwater single-celled green algae, is more popular in Japan as a regular supplement than vitamin C. An estimated 5 million Japanese use this medicinal algae every day. Chlorella’s broad spectrum health benefits, amply researched by Japanese scientists, include the impressive fact that it contains 60% protein, including all the essential amino acids, and high levels of beta carotene and chlorophyll.

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It is to chlorella’s high chlorophyll content (more chlorophyll per gram than any other plant) that many researchers and enthusiastic users attribute its multiple health benefits.

Both scientific documentation and reliable anecdotal reports indicate that chlorella is effective in helping to reduce the symptoms of numerous types of cancers, diabetes, low blood sugar, arthritis, AIDS, pancreatitis, liver cirrhosis, hepatitis, peptic ulcers, viral and bacterial infections, anemia, and multiple sclerosis.

Chlorella is considered to be a first class detoxifying agent, capable of removing alcohol from the liver and heavy metals (such as cadmium and mercury), certain pesticides, herbicides, and polychlorbiphenyls (PCBs) from the body’s tissues. A Japanese study showed that taking 4-6gm of chlorella before consuming alcohol can prevent hangovers 96% of the time, even after a night of heavy drinking.

Chlorella can also absorb toxins from the intestines, help relieve chronic constipation, favorably alter the bacterial flora content of the bowel and eliminate intestinal gas. It is also effective in healing skin wounds, both mild and severe.

About 30% of people can not tolerate chlorella. This may be due to a cellulase insufficiency: if you are unable to tolerate chlorella, it would be wise to consider adding a digestive enzyme supplement with cellulase in it to help digest the chlorella.

There have been hard-to-substantiate comments about the danger of mercury contamination in chlorella products. One doctor has responded by saying “What the investigators failed to account for was that the binding coefficient of chlorella to mercury is far in excess of its potential to release mercury into the body. It only absorbs mercury; it does not release it into the body.”

Improving Chlorella Digestibility Was Key To Its Widespread Use

Although the naturally tough chlorella cell wall had protected the valuable nutrients inside the cell for 2.5 billion years, it proved to be a disadvantage for human consumption. The problem of digestibility was solved in 1975 when a patented procedure was developed that breaks down the chlorella cell walls and yields a digestibility rate over 80%.

In the 1960s, the Japanese scientists turned their attention to the possibilities of chlorella as a promoter of good health. It was found that chlorella contains an astonishingly wide variety of vitamins and minerals and other nutrients. Additionally, it has many unknown factors in nature. One can take vitamins and minerals and still not get the same effects as with chlorella.

Chlorella is one of nature’s most nutritious substances, containing large amounts of Vitamin A, Vitamin B12, Iron, Zinc, Copper, and a host of other vitamins and minerals. Chlorella also contains a large percentage of chlorophyll, which is essential in aiding digestion, cleansing the bowels, and purifying blood. Studies in Asia and elsewhere have shown that Chlorella has a positive effect on liver function. The cellulose membrane of Chlorella that is not digested binds to dangerous heavy metals, speeding their elimination from the body. By cleansing the bowels and aiding liver function, Chlorella keeps the bloodstream free of wastes. Chlorella has also been shown to sustain healthy lung function and substantially increase one’s resistance to cold and flu. In addition to improving the immune system, Chlorella has also been used to speed the healing process and improve the function of white blood cells. Chlorella is truly one of nature’s great gifts, providing essential vitamins and nutrients as well as promoting the healthy function of nearly all the body’s systems.

As foods go, chlorella is among the elite few that reside in the ?Near Perfect? category. For a simple single cell algae plant coming from fresh water, chlorella’s range of benefits is astounding.

Chlorella can help with the following:

  • Alcohol-related Problems
  • Alzheimer’s Disease
    A study showed that among 50 people with Alzheimer’s, aged 70-90, taking 6gm daily of chlorella for 6 months, 68% experienced either a stabilization or improvement in cognitive functions.
  • Crohn’s Disease
  • Multiple Sclerosis
  • Anemia (Iron deficiency)
  • Poor/Slow Wound Healing
  • Constipation
  • Gastric/Peptic/Duodenal Ulcers
  • Mercury Toxicity (Amalgam Illness)
    Using large doses of chlorella facilitates fecal mercury excretion. After the intestinal mercury burden is lowered by other means, mercury will more readily migrate into the intestine from other body tissues where chlorella will aid in its removal.
  • Weakened Immune System
  • AIDS
  • Immune System Imbalance (TH2 Dominance)
    Chlorella increases TH1 cytokines to help balance the immune system. Other algae products may have similar benefits.
  • Yeast / Candida Infection
  • Hypoalbuminemia (A low albumin level)
  • Intoxication Susceptibility
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Diabetes Type II
  • Cirrhosis of the Liver
  • Pancreatitis
  • Hepatitis
  • Low Back Pain
    Chlorella or other algae may reduce circulating toxins and bowel autointoxication, and consequently improve chronic lower back pain.

Also, Chlorella can also help you in general with:

  • Detoxify the heavy metals and other pesticides in your body
  • Improve your digestive system, including decreasing constipation
  • Focus more clearly and for greater duration
  • Improve your energy level
  • Balance your body’s pH
  • Normalize your blood sugar and blood pressure
  • Eliminate bad breath
  • Fight cancer

Chlorella is a whole-food, unlike most commercial vitamins. While it contains a wide array of vitamins, minerals and enzymes, chlorella is superior to vitamin supplements in many ways.

Far Superior to Vitamin Supplements and Other Algae & Grasses

Chlorella is natural and the vitamins and minerals in it are bio-chelated, which means they are naturally wrapped in amino acids so the body will more readily take them in. Supplements, meanwhile, are nothing more than an amalgam of concentrates and extracts that have been artificially stitched together because — at least on paper — they look like they should provide balanced nutrition. As a whole-food, chlorella provides the body with a stunning amount of nutrients that are naturally balanced and won’t accumulate in your body and become toxic — yet another reason they are superior to any man-made vitamin supplement.

Chlorella is also the superior of the three algae and two cereal grasses commonly available: chlorella, spirulina, blue-green algae, wheat grass and barley grass. All five are excellent sources of nutrients, but chlorella is much higher in chlorophyll content than the others. Its tough cell walls also provide advantages above the other four, including an outstanding ability to eliminate toxins, pesticides and heavy metals from the body. But chlorella’s nucleus, containing chlorella growth factor with its great rejuvenating effects, is what truly sets it apart from the others.

Highest Quality Chlorella Available

The chlorella is ecologically grown in mineral-rich mountain spring water in the pure air and sunshine, without any pesticides. Potency and purity meet the most rigorous Japanese health standards. It contains no sugar, starch, or artificial coloring, flavoring or preservatives.Read about the success others are having with taking chlorella.

Anti Cancer Properties of Chlorella

Chlorella Stimulates Interferon

Interferon is one of our body’s greatest natural defenses against cancer. One of the ways to fight cancer is the use of agents to stimulate macrophage production and activity. Interferon is a natural secretion of the body that is thought to be a stimulator of macrophages and tumor necrosis factor (TNF).

Chlorella stimulates the activity of T-cells and macrophages by increasing interferon levels thus enhancing the immune system’s ability to combat foreign invaders whether they are bacteria, viruses, chemicals or foreign proteins.

It thus appears that chlorella cell walls have the ability to fight cancer cells through interferon production induced from the complex polysaccharides. Chlorella’s unique cell wall is one of the important factors that sets chlorella apart from other “green” foods.

Chlorella Increases T-Cells and B-Cells

B-Cells and T-cells in the body are active against viruses and cancer. Macrophages are large cells that surround and digest foreign substances in the body. They are active against cancer, foreign proteins and chemicals.

There are a limited number in the human body, therefore limiting the ability of the body to remove harmful substances from the blood. One of the ways to fight cancer is the use of agents to stimulate macrophage production and activity.

Mice that were injected with cancer cells showed a higher resistance to this challenge if they had been fed chlorella. Other tests showed that the chlorella growth factor improves resistance to abdominal tumors while increasing the number of immune cells in the abdominal cavity. Chlorella promotes cell reproduction, reduces cholesterol and increases hemoglobin levels. Because of its broad nutritional and detoxifying profile, Chlorella promotes the repair of bodily organs and tissues that have been injured or otherwise damaged.

Chlorella Improves Fatigue Associated With Chemotherapy

Chlorella’s most improvement is in the white blood cell count. People diagnosed with cancer suffer from the side effects of chemotherapy-fatigue. With chemotherapy, the bad cells are killed, but so are the good cells. The person’s white blood cell count drops dramatically.

Chlorella helps the body to rapidly rebuild the white blood cells to improve chemotherapy-induced fatigue. Chlorella is especially helpful when used as part of a broad based individualized nutritionally oriented physician guided program.

How Much Chlorella Should a Person Take If They Have Cancer?
It is not uncommon for people who have cancer to take as much as 30 grams of chlorella per day. One person with bone cancer showed tremendous results after 6 months of taking 20 grams of Chlorella per day. The most positive results appeared in the protein numbers of his blood work which had all moved into normal range, some as much as 30-40% movement in that time period.

The specific dose and application of chlorella ideally should be monitored by a nutritionally oriented physician or a certified clinical nutritionist.References:

Effect of dietary phytochemicals on cancer development
Waladkhani AR; Clemens MR
Int J Mol Med 1998 Apr;1(4):747-53

Vegetables, fruits, and whole grains contain a wide variety of phytochemicals that have the potential to modulate cancer development. There are many biologically plausible reasons why consumption of plant foods might slow or prevent the appearance of cancer. These include the presence in plant foods of such potentially anticarcinogenic substances as carotenoids, chlorophyll, flavonoids, indole, isothiocyanate, polyphenolic compounds, protease inhibitors, sulfides, and terpens. The specific mechanisms of action of most phytochemicals in cancer prevention are not yet clear but appear to be varied.

Chlorophyll and chlorophyllin as modifiers of genotoxic effects.
Sarkar D; Sharma A; Talukder G
Mutat Res 1994 Dec;318(3):239-47.

Reports on an inverse relationship between the consumption of fresh vegetables and human gastrointestinal cancer have been followed by screening for the protective activity of a large number of plant extracts, including leafy vegetables. Chlorophyll is ubiquitous in all green plant parts. Chlorophyllins are derivatives of chlorophyll in which the central magnesium atom is replaced by other metals, such as cobalt, copper or iron. An attempt has been made in this article to review the relative efficacy of chlorophyll and chlorophyllin in modifying the genotoxic effects of various known toxicants.

Dietary inhibitors against mutagenesis and carcinogenesis.
Hayatsu H, Negishi T, Arimoto S
Basic Life Sci. 1993;61:387-418

Enhanced resistance against Escherichia coli infection by subcutaneous administration of the hot-water extract of Chlorella vulgaris in cyclophosphamide-treated mice.
Konishi F; Tanaka K; Kumamoto S, et al
Cancer Immunol Immunother 1990;32(1):1-7

The effects of chlorella vulgaris on the recovery of leukocyte number and the increase of resistance to bacterial infection were examined in mice made white cell deficient by cyclophosphamide, a chemotherapy agent. They were given chlorella (50 mg/kg) under the skin, every other day from day 1 to day 13 after cyclophosphamide treatment. Chlorella accelerated the recovery of white blood cells in the mice. The number of pro white blood cells in the spleen increased rapidly and highly after the administration of chlorella. Mice given chlorella showed an enhanced resistance against E. coli infection, irrespective of the timing of challenge. The bacterial number in cyclophophamide treated mice increased explosively after inoculation, resulting in death within 24 hours. A progressive elimination of bacteria was observed from 6 hours in the peritoneal cavity, spleen and liver of cyclophosphamide-treated mice given chlorella. These results indicate that chlorella can be used as a potent stimulant of nonspecific resistance to infection in neutropenic mice.

Augmentation of the resistance against Escherichia coli by oral administration of a hot water extract of Chlorella vulgaris in rats.
Hasegawa T; Tanaka K; Ueno K, et al
Int J Immunopharmacol 1989;11(8):971-6

In previous studies, we demonstrated that chlorella growth factor improved the resistance against an intraperitoneal infection with Escherichia coli by its intraperitoneal, intravenous or subcutaneous administration. The improved resistance appeared to be attributable to the enhanced activity of white blood cells. In this study, the effect of oral administration of chlorella against Escherichia coli infection was examined. Male rats were administered 1000 mg/kg of chlorella orally for 14 days and challenged with 2.7 x 10(8) Escherichia coli intraperitoneally. The numbers of living bacteria in the peritoneal cavity, blood, spleen and liver at 1, 6, and 24 hours after the inoculation were counted. The bacterial numbers increased during 1-6 hours and reached the peak at 6 hours in both control and chlorella administered groups. The bacterial numbers decreased to an undetectable level at 24 hours in both groups. In a chlorella administered group, the numbers of viable bacteria in each organ were remarkably lower than those in a control group in all organs so far tested. These results form the basis for the judgment that the degree of effectiveness of bacteria clearance from the peritoneal cavity shown by oral chlorella administration may be strong enough to warrant developing this material as a new type of biological response modifier.

Biological activities of chlorophyll derivatives.
Chernomorsky SA; Segelman AB
SOURCE: N J Med 1988 Aug;85(8):669-73.

Antitumor effect induced by a hot water extract of Chlorella vulgaris (CE): resistance to Meth-A tumor growth mediated by CE-induced polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
Konishi F; Tanaka K; Himeno K, et al
Cancer Immunol Immunother 1985;19(2):73-8

When chlorella growth factor was injected into the peritoneal cavity of mice inoculated with tumor cells, the survival times were strikingly prolonged. Furthermore, peritoneal exudate cells (PEC) rich in white blood cells obtained from normal mice 24 hours after chlorella growth factor injection exhibited an antitumor effect in a assay using normal recipients. It was suggested that chlorella growth factor induced PEC, presumably white blood cell, expressed an antitumor effect in cooperation with a host- or recipient-derived element(s) sensitive to irradiation. The antitumor mechanism of chlorella growth factor may be one of the biological response modifiers.

A water-soluble antitumor glycoprotein from Chlorella vulgaris.
Noda K; Ohno N; Tanaka K, et al
Planta Med 1996 Oct;62(5):423-6

An active substance with antitumor activity was purified from the culture media of chlorella and found to be a glycoprotein. ARS2 contains 66.9% carbohydrate, mainly D-galactose, and 35.2% protein.

Protective effect of an acidic glycoprotein obtained from culture of Chlorella vulgaris against myelosuppression by 5-fluorouracil.
Konishi F; Mitsuyama M; Okuda M, et al
Cancer Immunol Immunother 1996 Jun;42(5):268-74

A protein prepared from a culture of chlorella was examined for its protective effect on chemotherapy-induced bone marrow suppression and infections in mice. Subcutaneous administration of chlorella greatly reduced the mortality of non-tumor-bearing mice given a high dose of chemotherapy agent 5FU, and could increase the LD50 value of 5FU for these mice. After 5FU treatment, infections developed probably as a result of the impairment of the host defense system. Chlorella reduced the incidence of infections and this effect was attributable to the acceleration of recovery from 5FU-induced bone marrow suppression. When tumor-bearing mice were given chlorella during treatment with 5FU, chlorella prolonged the survival of mice without affecting the antitumor activity of 5FU. In addition, chlorella was itself shown to exert an antitumor effect. These results suggested that chlorella may be beneficial for the reduction of side-effects in cancer chemotherapy without affecting the antitumor activity of the chemotherapeutic agent.

Oral administration of Chlorella vulgaris augments concomitant antitumor immunity.
Tanaka K; Tomita Y; Tsuruta M, et al
Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 1990;12(2):277-91

Chlorella or chlorella factor extract were administered orally to tumor bearing mice. When tumor mice were fed daily with 10% dried powder of chlorella containing diet before and after tumor inoculation, the growth of rechallenged tumor was significantly suppressed in an antigen-specific manner.

Inhibitory effects of sterols isolated from Chlorella vulgaris on 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced inflammation and tumor promotion in mouse skin.
Yasukawa K; Akihisa T; Kanno H, et al
Biol Pharm Bull 1996 APR;19(4):573-6

Inhibitory activity against cancer induced inflammation in mice was observed in the extract of chlorella that has chlorella growth factor.

Antitumor effect induced by a hot water extract of Chlorella vulgaris (CE): resistance to Meth-A tumor growth mediated by CE-induced polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
Konishi F; Tanaka K; Himeno K, et al
Cancer Immunol Immunother 1985;19(2):73-8

When chlorella growth factor was injected into the peritoneal cavity of mice inoculated with tumor cells, the survival times were strikingly prolonged. Furthermore, peritoneal exudate cells (PEC) rich in white blood cells obtained from normal mice 24 hours after chlorella growth factor injection exhibited an antitumor effect in a assay using normal recipients. It was suggested that chlorella growth factor induced PEC, presumably white blood cell, expressed an antitumor effect in cooperation with a host- or recipient-derived element(s) sensitive to irradiation. The antitumor mechanism of chlorella growth factor may be one of the biological response modifiers.

Some Chlorella Scientific Research Tidbits

Chlorella is one of the MOST scientifically researched foods in human history. There are thousands of research papers on Chlorella from medical institutions, scientific journals and universities. NASA has determined will one of the first foods grown on the space station when it is completed. The research done on both of these has come from all over the world by scientists at universities, private industry and chlorella manufacturers themselves. Not a single negative aspect of Chlorella has ever been sited as far as human health is concerned.

Below are some representative literature references to reassure you of chlorella’s thoroughly researched benefits and safety:

Performance of different microalgael species in removing nickel and zinc from industrial wastewater.
Chong AM, Wong YS
Tam Chemosphere. 2000 Jul;41(1-2):251-7

Experiments were conducted to compare the ability of 11 microgaeal species in removing nickel and zinc from waste water and found them to be very effective.

Nutritional supplementation with Chlorella pyrenoidosa for patients with fibromyalgia syndrome: a pilot study.
Merchant RE; Carmack CA; Wise CM

Departments of Anatomy and Internal Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, Medical College of Virginia Richmond, VA 23298-0709, USA. rmerchan@hsc.vcu.edu

Phytother Res 2000 May;14(3):167-73

Each day for 2 months 20 participants consumed 10 grams (10,000 mg) of chlorella. Any amelioration of symptoms was validated and quantified using semi-objective and subjective outcome measures systematically administered at clinic visits on days 0, 30 and 60 of the diet therapy. Eighteen of the 20 patients enrolled completed the 2 month trial. After two months the average pain decrease was 22%.This decrease was statistically significant. Blood samples taken on each occasion indicated no significant alterations in serum chemistries, formed elements, and circulating lymphocyte subsets.

Oral administration of a unicellular green algae, Chlorella vulgaris, prevents stress-induced ulcer.
Tanaka K, Yamada A, Noda K, et al
Planta Med 1997 Oct;63(5):465-6.

Oral administration of dry powder of Chlorella vulgaris showed clear prophylactic effects in ulcers. Chlorella may prevent ulcer formation mainly through the “immune-brain-gut” axis and protection of gastric mucosa by its own characteristics.

Post-exposure radioprotection by Chlorella vulgaris (E-25) in mice.
Singh SP; Tiku AB; Kesavan PC
Indian J Exp Biol 1995 Aug;33(8):612-5

Oral administration of chlorella, 1 hr before or immediately after exposure to sublethal gamma-rays increased the number of endogenous spleen colony forming units. The magnitude of radioprotection was dependent on both, the dose of chlorella fed and the time of administration. An optimal result was observed when 500 mg/kg body wt. of C. vulgaris was fed 1 hr before or immediately after irradiation.

Microalgae as food and supplement.
Kay RA
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 1991;30(6):555-73.

The microalgae Chlorella and the cyanobacteria Spirulina green blue algae, are being used as nutrient-dense foods and sources of fine chemicals. They have significant amounts of lipid, protein, chlorophyll, carotenoids, vitamins, minerals, and unique pigments. They may also have potent probiotic compounds that enhance health. Their historical and current use are reviewed in this article.

Effect of chlorella on rats with iron deficient anemia.
Matsuura E; Nemoto T; Hozumi H, et al
Kitasato Arch Exp Med 1991 DEC;64(4):193-204

In order to determine effects of iron deficiency on the living body, rats were given the iron deficient diet, the complete diet added with iron, the diet added with 1% chlorella, the diet added with 5% chlorella, or the diet added with 10% chlorella. For the first 30 days, rats of all groups were given the iron deficiency diet to make them iron deficient, and were subsequently given the respective diet during the next 30 days to observe various changes in the conditions of rats. Following results were obtained. Rats with some chlorella fed with the diets containing certain amounts of iron rapidly recovered.

The radioprotective effects of aqueous extract from chlorococcal freshwater algae (Chlorella kessleri) in mice and rats.
Rotkovska D; Vacek A; Bartonickova A
Strahlenther Onkol 1989 Nov;165(11):813-6

In experiments on mice and rats, the effect was studied of a single administration of chlorella growth. After injection of this substance the number of haemopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow and spleen of mice (CFUs) increased, as did their survival after irradiation. Irradiation with a lethal dose of gamma rays 24 hours after the injection of Ivastimul is survived by a larger number of treated mice and rats than untreated ones. On the first day after the administration Ivastimul protects mice against brief and prolonged action of irradiation. The protective effect of Ivastimul was observed after intraperitoneal, intramuscular and subcutaneous administration.

Effect of dried, powdered Chlorella vulgaris on experimental atherosclerosis and alimentary hypercholesterolemia in cholesterol-fed rabbits.
Sano T; Tanaka Y
Artery 1987;14(2):76-84

The anti-lipidemic action and anti-atherosclerotic action of dried, powdered chlorella was investigated using male Japanese White rabbits. A ten-week load of high-cholesterol diet remarkably increased serum total cholesterol and the beta-lipoprotein cholesterol levels in serum, causing aortic atheromatous lesion. In the Chlorella group which was administered a high-cholesterol diet containing 1% powdered chlorella, increase of total and beta-lipoprotein cholesterol level was suppressed. Further, the development of aortic atheromatous lesions was significantly inhibited. Clofibrate used as positive control in this experiment, did not show any inhibitory effect, either on the increase in serum lipid level or on the development of aortic atheromatous lesion.

Chlorella Growth Factor

Inhibitory effects of sterols isolated from Chlorella vulgaris on 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced inflammation and tumor promotion in mouse skin.
Yasukawa K; Akihisa T; Kanno H, et al
Biol Pharm Bull 1996 Apr;19(4):573-6

Inhibitory activity against cancer induced inflammation in mice was observed in the extract of chlorella that has chlorella growth factor.

Augmentation of host defense by a unicellular green alga, Chlorella vulgaris, to Escherichia coli infection.
Tanaka K; Koga T; Konishi F
Infect Immun 1986 Aug;53(2):267-71

Protection against Escherichia coli inoculated intraperitoneally into mice was enhanced by intraperitoneal, intravenous, or subcutaneous administration of chlorella growth factor. The enhancing effect was detected with doses over 2.0 mg/kg and when doses were administered 1, 4, or 7 days before the infection. The elimination of bacteria from the spleen of chlorella growth factor treated mice was increased, and this enhanced elimination may have been related to the acceleration of superoxide generation and chemokinesis in polymorphonuclear leucocytes by chlorella growth factor treatment.

Antitumor effect induced by a hot water extract of Chlorella vulgaris (CE): resistance to Meth-A tumor growth mediated by CE-induced polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
Konishi F; Tanaka K; Himeno K, et al
Cancer Immunol Immunother 1985;19(2):73-8

When chlorella growth factor was injected into the peritoneal cavity of mice inoculated with tumor cells, the survival times were strikingly prolonged. Furthermore, peritoneal exudate cells (PEC) rich in white blood cells obtained from normal mice 24 h after chlorella growth factor injection exhibited an antitumor effect in a assay using normal recipients. It was suggested that chlorella growth factor induced PEC, presumably white blood cell, expressed an antitumor effect in cooperation with a host- or recipient-derived element(s) sensitive to irradiation. The antitumor mechanism of chlorella growth factor may be one of the biological response modifiers.

Augmentation of antitumor resistance by a strain of unicellular green algae, Chlorella vulgaris.
Tanaka K; Konishi F; Himeno K, et al
Cancer Immunol Immunother 1984;17(2):90-4

Growth of tumor in mice was inhibited significantly by injection of chlorella growth factor into the tumor or into the subcutaneous tissue near the tumor. The augmentation of resistance by chlorella growth factor may require the participation of T cells and macrophages, since it was abolished or reduced in athymic nude mice or mice treated with carrageenan, a macrophage blocker. Mice treated with chlorella growth factor exhibited antigen-specific augmented resistance against rechallenge with tumor.
Anti Cancer

A water-soluble antitumor glycoprotein from Chlorella vulgaris.
Noda K; Ohno N; Tanaka K, et al
Planta Med 1996 Oct;62(5):423-6

An active substance with antitumor activity (ARS2) was purified from the culture media of Chlorella vulgaris and found to be a glycoprotein with a molecular weight of 63,100 amu, as determined by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. ARS2 contains 66.9% carbohydrate, mainly D-galactose, and 35.2% protein. The carbohydrate moiety has a beta-1,6-D-galactopyranose backbone, as determined by methylation analysis and 13C-NMR. Apparently, the protein moiety, whose 15 amino acid sequence at the NH2-terminus, we determined as DVGEAFPTVVDALVA, is necessary for the antitumor activity, as assessed by hydrazinolysis, periodate oxidation, and proteolysis.

Protective effect of an acidic glycoprotein obtained from culture of Chlorella vulgaris against myelosuppression by 5-fluorouracil.
Konishi F; Mitsuyama M; Okuda M, et al
Cancer Immunol Immunother 1996 Jun;42(5):268-74

A protein prepared from a culture of chlorella was examined for its protective effect on chemotherapy-induced bone marrow suppression and infections in mice. Subcutaneous administration of chlorella greatly reduced the mortality of non-tumor-bearing mice given a high dose of chemotherapy agent 5FU, and could increase the LD50 value of 5FU for these mice. After 5FU treatment, infections developed probably as a result of the impairment of the host defense system. Chlorella reduced the incidence of infections and this effect was attributable to the acceleration of recovery from 5FU-induced bone marrow suppression. When tumor-bearing mice were given chlorella during treatment with 5FU, chlorella prolonged the survival of mice without affecting the antitumor activity of 5FU. In addition, chlorella was itself shown to exert an antitumor effect. These results suggested that chlorella may be beneficial for the reduction of side-effects in cancer chemotherapy without affecting the antitumor activity of the chemotherapeutic agent.

Oral administration of Chlorella vulgaris augments concomitant antitumor immunity.
Tanaka K; Tomita Y; Tsuruta M, et al
Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 1990;12(2):277-91

Chlorella or chlorella factor extract were administered orally to tumor bearing mice. When two mice were fed daily with 10% dried powder of chlorella containing diet before and after tumor inoculation, the growth of rechallenged tumor was significantly suppressed in an antigen-specific manner.

Inhibitory effects of sterols isolated from Chlorella vulgaris on 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced inflammation and tumor promotion in mouse skin.
Yasukawa K; Akihisa T; Kanno H, et al
Biol Pharm Bull 1996 APR;19(4):573-6

Inhibitory activity against cancer induced inflammation in mice was observed in the extract of chlorella that has chlorella growth factor.

Antitumor effect induced by a hot water extract of Chlorella vulgaris (CE): resistance to Meth-A tumor growth mediated by CE-induced polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
Konishi F; Tanaka K; Himeno K, et al
Cancer Immunol Immunother 1985;19(2):73-8

When chlorella growth factor was injected into the peritoneal cavity of mice inoculated with tumor cells, the survival times were strikingly prolonged. Furthermore, peritoneal exudate cells (PEC) rich in white blood cells obtained from normal mice 24 h after chlorella growth factor injection exhibited an antitumor effect in a assay using normal recipients. It was suggested that chlorella growth factor induced PEC, presumably white blood cell, expressed an antitumor effect in cooperation with a host- or recipient-derived element(s) sensitive to irradiation. The antitumor mechanism of chlorella growth factor may be one of the biological response modifiers.

Dosing of Chlorella

How Much Should You Take Per Day?

Three grams per day is a good maintenance dosage of Chlorella for a person to take. With this amount, you will not notice significant changes, however, your body will get many of the nutrients it must have to function properly such amino acids (protein), vital minerals, vitamins, carbohydrates and enzymes.

However, a person taking 5-7 grams per day is quite common and at this level you will notice significant changes in digestion, energy and overall health.

What Results Should You Expect When You Begin Taking Chlorella?

The first thing is better digestion, especially if you have bad breath or constipation. Both these are readily handled by taking small doses of Chlorella. However, many of the benefits of Chlorella are subtle and not easily determined by how a person feels.

For instance, Chlorella has been demonstrated to remove heavy metals and other synthetics from the body by actually binding with them so they may be pulled from the bloodstream. However, this result can only be measured if the level of heavy metals in the bloodstream are known before and after a person starts taking chlorella.

It takes approximately 3-6 months once starting chloreela for heavy metals to begin to be removed from the blood depending on the amount of chlorella taken. If it has been determined that a person does have heavy metals in their body, they should begin by taking 15-20 grams per day depending on the level of heavy metals that are present.

What Time Of Day Or Night Should You Take It?

Chlorella can be taken at any time of the day. It can be taken all at once or it can be taken in small dosages throughout the day, which is preferable. Morning is also a good time to take chlorella, but never just before or after drinking coffee or soft drinks since caffeine is extremely detrimental to the digestive process. (We generally advise people to avoid caffeine anyway).

Chlorella causes the bacteria in our stomachs, the Lactobacilli, to multiply at 4 times the rate of normal. This is why it is best to take with meals as chlorella helps provide very good digestion and more importantly, better assimilation of nutrients.

Can Everyone Tolerate Chlorella?

Because of the fiber content in chlorella’s cell wall and other nutritional factors, when some people begin to take chlorella for the first time they may go through cleansing reactions, sometimes referred to as a “healing crisis”. This cleansing reaction comes in the form of intestinal activity such as gas, cramping, constipation or diarrhea.

This same type of cleansing reaction frequently occurs when people switch from a low-fiber, “junk-food” diet to a high fiber, natural food diet.

For this reason, some individuals may wish to start out with less than the suggested amount and gradually increase up to the recommended dose in 1-2 weeks. Very sensitive individuals may want to start with as little as a single capsule per day.

If you have not been eating many fresh raw vegetables in your diet, it is probably a good idea to start out with a single capsule with each meal and increase by a capsule every 2-3 days.

Rarely cleansing reactions will go on for up to 3 months where one can not increase the dose beyond a capsule per day.

As long as you are not showing an allergic reaction (such as hives) or throwing up, you can safely continue the chlorella. In a couple of months, the reaction should decrease. And as it decreases, you can increase the dose.

Can You Take Too Much Chlorella?

It is best to think of chlorella as a food because that is exactly what it is: one of the purest, most potent foods on earth. A person can not take too much chlorella because it is naturally detoxifying. Therefore, the fear of chlorella accumulating and becoming toxic to the body is not present.

However, there is a “comfort level” with every person where he or she knows how much Chlorella to take per day. In general, that level will be about 5-8 grams per day.

A person taking 15-20 grams of chlorella per day is not at all unheard of if someone is trying to combat a disease with the amazing medicinal properties of chlorella. It is a whole food, not a concentrate or extract, therefore you can NOT take too much of it because of its detoxifying abilities.

Are There Conditions Where You Should Take Larger Doses of Chlorella?

Many people with chronic viral conditions, such as Epstein-Barr virus or Herpes virus have shown significant improvements in their condition with larger amounts of chlorella. Frequently, these individuals will need 10 to 15 grams per day (two to three teaspoons).

Should a person keep taking vitamins once they start taking Chlorella?

It would not hurt to keep taking multivitamins with chlorella, but, in my opinion multivitamins are not needed. Chlorella and a proper diet contain a wide array of vital vitamins, minerals and nutrients and are also much more economical than most vitamins.

Can Chlorella Be Used Topically?

Yes. Chlorella can be powdered and mixed with water into a paste and applied over a cut, scrap, rash or serious wound to help effectively heal it. It is the Chlorella Growth Factor in the chlorella that makes it such an effective healer of human tissue. After consuming chlorella for approximately one year (at levels of 5-7 grams per day), a person will notice significant healing improvement of cuts, scraps, and wounds without the need to apply it topically.

Can Chlorella Be Given To Children?

Absolutely. In fact, chlorella has been shown to promote rapid growth in children, as well as build in them superior immune systems. In studies with identical twins, the one given the chlorella grew much faster, much healthier and had much fewer instances of colds, flu, etc. than the twin who was not given chlorella. Children can take one-half to one-fourth the adult dose described above.

My thanks go to various web sites, Biotics Research Corp. and especially to
Mercola.com.