Cl – Chlorine is found in igneous rocks 130 ppm; shales 180 ppm; sandstones 10 PPM; limestone 150 ppm; fresh water 7 to 8 ppm; sea water 19,000 ppm; soil 100 ppm (higher in alkaline soils, near the sea and in deserts- a major exchangeable anion in many soils); marine plants 4,700 ppm; land plants 2,000 ppm; marine animals 5,000 to 90,000 ppm (highest in soft coelenterates); land animals 2,800 ppm (highest in mammalian hair and skin.
Essential for all living species – electrochemical and catalytic functions, activates numerous enzymes and is the basic raw material for our stomachs to make stomach acid (HCl) for protein digestion (pepsin), B12 absorption (intrinsic factor) and absorption of metallic minerals.
Sodium chloride or common table salt is the universal source of chloride ions.
Chloride (chlorine) is a major mineral nutrient that occurs in body fluids. Chloride is prominent negatively charged ion (anion) and a predominant ion (electrolyte) Of blood, where it represents 70% of the anions. Its negative charge balances positive charged ions (cations), SODIUM and POTASSIUM ions, to maintain osmolarity (total concentration of ions). For example, in serum the number of cations and anions both equal 155 milliequivalents per liter (MEq/L). The exchange of chloride and bicarbonate between red blood cells and plasma, the cell-free fluid, helps regulate the pH and carbon dioxide transport by the blood. Chloride also functions with sodium and potassium in nerves to transmit electric impulses. Chloride is converted to stomach acid (hydrochloric acid) to maintain the acidity of the stomach; when stomach acid is neutralized, chloride is reabsorbed by the intestine and recycled.
Most dietary chloride comes from table salt (sodium chloride), which occurs both as a food additive and as a natural ingredient in food. Chloride is non-toxic and safe. Adequate daily intake is between 1,700 and 5,100 mg. Chloride deficiency is rare because it is so plentiful in food. However, a chloride deficiency can occur with excessive perspiration, vomiting or diarrhea. Chloride deficiency symptoms resemble those of alkalosis (alkaline blood), apathy, irritability and dehydration. Chloride is an essential nutrient for infants. Chloride inadvertently omitted from baby formula in 1978 led to poor muscle control, delayed speech and slowed growth in affected infants.